Get paid to get your Ph.D.
Students in psychology and other social and behavioral sciences receive tuition waivers and fellowships as a matter of course
Have you ever wished that you could go back to university for an advanced degree but dismissed the idea because of the prohibitive price tag? If you attended an undergraduate university in the U.S., you’re likely aware that annual costs can exceed what graduating students expect to earn in their first year or two out of college. According to the National Center for Education Statistics, the 2017-2018 average tuition fees of a non-profit undergraduate program, including tuition, fees, room and board was $46,000 – $184,000 for a 4-year degree program.
These numbers, however, leave out the important fact that most Ph.D. students do not pay a dime for their tuition and, in fact, get paid for their time.
Note that some top-fee private universities charge almost double this amount. These average fees are presumably higher now, with an increase in costs recorded every year since 1985. According to Forbes, total U.S. student loan debt in 2020 is $1.56 trillion, and average student debt is $32,731. Master’s and Ph.D. programs often advertise similar fees, so costs and potential debt are a very reasonable fear. These numbers, however, leave out the important fact that most Ph.D. students do not pay a dime for their tuition and, in fact, get paid for their time.
Similar to undergraduate degrees, many students do not pay full tuition because they qualify for reduced tuitions based on financial need or merit.
According to the Urban Institute, 27% of American undergraduate students receive free tuition – but with caveats worth exploring, so check out that link for details – and many more receive limited tuition breaks. Only 37% of University of Chicago students, for example, paid full tuition in the 2016-2017 academic year according to the Hechinger Report. But while tuition breaks are great if you can get them, that’s not the idea here.
Most Ph.D. programs in psychology or otherwise seek to give 100% of their students the means for a tuition waiver and living expenses, regardless of financial need. Graduate programs do not explicitly advertise the tuition breaks, so many potential graduate students are unaware that tuition waivers and financial support are so commonplace. The kind of stipend varies widely depending on the Ph.D. program. Research psychology Ph.D. programs usually include a 100% tuition waiver with stipends higher than $10,000 / year, often with extra income for teaching or research contributions. This is in stark contrast to the notoriously high undergraduate admissions prices. It is also something I didn’t know until I had already made plans for my own Ph.D. and began contacting programs about conditions for tuition waivers and stipends.
My own story is worth telling, in that it is likely somewhat representative of other students entering Ph.D. programs in psychology. I had already decided that I wanted to go to graduate school, but I was seriously worried about costs and whether it would be worth it. There was a guest at the house where I was living at the time who happened to be a Ph.D. student, and when I asked her about tuitions, she laughed.
“You know you get paid as a Ph.D. student, right?”
“What do you mean? I can show you the tuitions at the schools I’m thinking about, and I promise you, I’d be paying them, not the other way around”.
“That’s just the official tuition. No one pays that.”
When I inquired at each of the 9 schools I was interested in attending, I received the same response: there would be some kind of tuition waiver and stipend opportunity if accepted, but the offers would depend on the terms of my acceptance. These were programs in biology, anthropology, neuroscience, and psychology. The two programs I was accepted to each offered me a tuition waiver and an annual stipend – between $4000 and $8000 depending on the program – and promised that there would be other opportunities for additional income depending on performance and need.
To be clear, even in 1987 when I was applying, these fellowships were on the low end for psychology programs. While both programs were psychological, they were also on the anthropology-side of psychology. One was in a straight-up anthropology department, albeit psychological anthropology. The other was in an interdisciplinary department affiliated directly with the psychology department but also with anthropology, sociology, and biology faculty members and a strong humanities component.
Unlike most graduate programs in psychology, graduate students did not teach courses and so there was not a mandatory teaching component, which tends to support tuition waivers.
Anthropology and sociology departments do not generally receive as much research grant money for their faculty as psychology programs do, consequently their graduate student fellowships tend to be lower. One traditional cognitive psychology program, I visited and considered attending, offered at minimum stipends of more than $13,000 per student. My colleague, who only applied to neuroscience Ph.D. programs, was offered stipends between $15,000 and $20,000 per year guaranteed, with 100% tuition waivers and the opportunity to earn additional income for discipline-related departmental work.
The initial promised stipend was just a start. I did well in my first year and was offered an additional fellowship based on an existing departmental grant to support students working in cultural psychology. In my third year, when it was time to begin dissertation research, I applied for a couple of grants to support dissertation research, and for the final year of my dissertation research received more than $30,000 a year. Better than most, but not unheard of. During the dissertation write-up period of my program, I entered a competition to teach my own course. Although I had to turn it down in the end, this came with both added value and experience for a job search and a paycheck. Unlike most graduate programs in psychology, graduate students did not teach courses and so there was not a mandatory teaching component, which tends to support tuition waivers.
Why are programs paying students to get their education, instead of charging them for it, as they are at the undergraduate level? What are the various sources of income and how is their distribution determined? Let’s start with the Why.
Why are Ph.D. programs paying students to get their education instead of charging them for it?
Most student-specific Ph.D. stipends are merit based
This is also true for undergraduate programs, but performance expectations for graduate programs tend to be one-level higher. You need to have been an outstanding student, or have demonstrated promise to be an outstanding student at the graduate level, to be considered for a Ph.D. program, since it is a meaningful step higher on the level of educational rigor. Like undergraduate tuition waivers, they’re paying you because you are something special to them.
The applicant pool is much smaller and more competitive for graduate programs, so schools need to compete for qualified students
In business, when supply is higher than demand, service providers compete for clients, but when demand is higher than supply, clients need to compete for service providers, as the quality of your customer service from your local plumber or electrician or doctor may confirm. Universities are not so different: there is a shortage of great graduate student candidates, particularly relative to undergraduate candidates. Qualified applicants are a treasured commodity that schools compete for. Tuition waivers and stipends are one way for them to compete.
Ph.D. students are not just studying or teaching, they are also engaging in research
Usually, this research is supported by large scientific grants, given to their advisors, which includes money to pay graduate students for their research. Largely, this is the reason my colleague, entering neuroscience programs, was offered so much more than I was, entering anthropology and psychology programs.
University departments take a significant portion of every grant their faculty members receive.
University departments take a significant portion of every grant their faculty members receive. Some of this money supports graduate students who will eventually help conduct research for the department. Since faculty members working on particular research often have a powerful say in which graduate-student applicants are accepted, and those students are often accepted specifically to work with those faculty members, new students may already have specific support directly from the faculty member’s grant.
Graduate students give value back to the department in a way that is qualitatively different from undergraduates
They help their advisors with research and co-publish articles central to the advisors’ own scholarly success, even when it is not supported by grants. This, in turn, is pivotal to the department’s reputation and, therefore, success. Students apply for and receive research grants that add prestige and money to the faculty member they work with and to the department. At most universities, they also work as teaching assistants and as head teachers, a central part of what undergraduate tuitions are paying universities for, which allows the tenured faculty members to teach less and spend more time on their own research.
Students apply for and receive research grants that add prestige and money to the faculty member they work with and to the department.
Of course, these students receive a graduate education in the process, but when it involves teaching and research rather than just taking courses, this is more in the apprentice model of education, unlike undergraduate education. It helps university departments and their faculty succeed, adds value to undergraduate students, and often provides significantly more net income to the universities than the costs in fellowships to the students.
Research universities, large enough to have Ph.D. programs, tend to be humanistic and care about the quality of life of graduate students
Graduate students are older, their parents tend to no longer be paying for their educations, something that cannot be said at the undergraduate level. Often, they are married or starting families and need financial support if they are to have any hope of completing an advanced degree. Since they are providing important value to the department, the university, their mentors, and undergraduate student – financial and reputational value – financial support is seen by most programs as a kind of moral imperative.
What are the various sources of income and how is their distribution determined?
The various sources of income have already been discussed at different points above, but it might be useful to consider them more systematically.
Standard tuition waivers and stipends
Many programs have a standard tuition waiver and stipend promised to all incoming students. As a common example, Duke University’s Department of Psychology and Neuroscience guarantees all incoming graduate students 5 years of tuition and fee waivers and stipends, including summers for the first 2 years, before students need to obtain additional funding themselves. Often tuition waivers and stipends come with additional work requirements, such as lab research assistantships or—more often—minimum teaching requirements. For example, the University of South Florida’s Department of Psychology guarantees all incoming Ph.D. students financial support, but more qualified than Duke’s.
Sometimes there are no strings attached other than minimum course requirements and performance.
For the 2020-21 academic year, students are guaranteed a tuition waiver and a salary of $17,830 for 16-20 hours of paid work per week, yet they’re still responsible for student fees, and they need to apply for the work and take whatever jobs they can get. To give an example of the standard teaching and research assistantship requirements, The Department of Psychology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) offers complete waiver of tuition and all fees and a financial award of $27,000 guaranteed for 4 years with a commitment to teach or conduct departmental research part time.
Sometimes there are no strings attached other than minimum course requirements and performance. Occasionally, there are fixed amounts for all students, but more often they are merit based, with the most outstanding applicants offered more, and the applicants who were barely accepted offered very little or nothing at all. This explains why all 3 programs in the links above are somewhat unclear about who gets what. In any case, most programs come with a complete tuition waiver and some kind of stipend, though usually there are also performance and work requirements attached.
Most graduate programs have a teaching requirement. While this is also important training for being a scholar and future university professor, it also provides a meaningful service to the university and comes with a salary. As mentioned above, often there is a standard minimum teaching requirement that comes with a set annual stipend and tuition waiver, but sometimes teaching is just an option for those who opt in, or who need the tuition waiver and salary.
Even when there is a minimum teaching requirement, many students will teach extra courses for additional income and experience. Salary will depend on whether it is an assistantship or as the main teacher.
Psychology Ph.D. programs are research based. Faculty members do their own research with labs that students join as part of their graduate training and degree. Often students are accepted directly into a particular lab and are expected to stay unless there are compatibility problems. Even when students are accepted into a lab, however, they are usually expected to spend time working in other labs during their first couple of years to broaden their experience in the department.
While lab research is a requirement, as with teaching, it often comes with a tuition waiver and stipend.
While lab research is a requirement, as with teaching, it often comes with a tuition waiver and stipend. And as with teaching, students are frequently given the opportunity to do additional paid research to support their income, even when research is not a standard departmental requirement.
Faculty research grants
When faculty apply for federal or NGO grants to support their research, funding requests often include money for the salaries of graduate students needed to help with the research. This is a widespread source of funding for students.
Even when faculty research grants are not available, students themselves often apply for grants to support their research. This may be in collaboration with their advisors, but often it is stand-alone support for the student’s dissertation research.
Although this might sound rosy, there are several important limitations that one should keep in mind.
Not all students are created equal
In my own experience in several graduate programs, international students were far less likely to receive full-tuition breaks and stipends, although I can only speculate about the motivation behind this or how widespread the practice is.
If you are on a waiting list, particularly in less well-funded departments, you may not be offered an automatic tuition waiver or stipend.
More importantly, as already mentioned, initial offered stipends tend to be merit based. If you are on a waiting list, particularly in less well-funded departments, you may not be offered an automatic tuition waiver or stipend. Even in these cases, there are usually teaching opportunities and departmental research that can provide the waiver and a salary. However, this requirement will put you at a disadvantage relative to the more sought-after students who receive the stipend and waiver without any work requirement in return.
You need to work for it
Most waivers and stipends in psychology departments come with a standard teaching, research, and academic performance requirement. Yes, you get paid to go to graduate school, and teaching and research are standard components of getting a Ph.D., but you will need to work hard and perform well.
Time and degree limitations
While stipends and tuition waivers are usually guaranteed for the first few years of a Ph.D. program, students often fend for themselves after that. There are usually options for research, teaching, or grants to give additional support after the first few years, but they’re not guaranteed, and they require additional time commitments not needed for the first few years.
These limitations are arguably in place as an incentive to get students to move on with their careers.
Students who take longer than the expected number of years often lose funding completely. They also receive extensive tuition deductions because they are no longer engaged in course work. These limitations are arguably in place as an incentive to get students to move on with their careers. This is true of most Ph.D. programs, yet it does not transfer to all graduate education. Master’s-terminal programs often rely on high student tuitions to fund their programs and rarely give tuition waivers or stipends.
Not a living wage
Yes, you will likely get paid to go to graduate school, in Ph.D. programs, but not enough to live on. Many students need to work, at least part-time, to support themselves. Students who don’t work either live on a shoestring budget (think oatmeal for breakfast and rice and beans for lunch and dinner), or have savings, family support, or loans. It’s far better than the astronomical tuitions with no stipend at the undergraduate level, but it’s hardly what one might want to start a family.
If you were holding off on getting a Ph.D., because you couldn’t bear the thought of university tuitions, or of the dramatic debt that would be required to fund your education, think again.